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Differentiate between Educators and Trainers


A lecture (from the French ‘lecture’, meaning ‘reading’ [process]) is an oral presentation intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject, for example by a university or college teacher. Lectures are used to convey critical information, history, background, theories, and equations. Usually the lecturer will stand at the front of the room and recite information relevant to the lecture’s content.


Teacher takes charge of the learning environment. The teacher is responsible for creating lesson plans that direct the course of study students follow. Clear and concise objectives delineate what the student learns on any given day. The teacher is responsible for measuring how much information the student learns. Evaluation is often in the form of tests, but the teacher may use other measurement tools to determine if the student met the teacher’s learning objectives.


Presentations can be of various types, depending on whether the presentation is intended to:

  • Sell
  • Inform
  • Motivate
  • Persuade
  • Advocate
  • Persuade
  • Entertain
  • Educate


Facilitators might not be subject area experts. They do have special training in group dynamics, using processes such as conflict resolution, strategic planning and team building. In any group setting, a facilitator can quickly determine what the group knows so the group can proceed to build on that knowledge. By asking questions and keeping the group focused, a facilitator helps the group establish a set of ground rules, as well as its own learning objectives. The facilitator also helps the group evaluate what group members learned from their activities.


Students/learners come to the occasion prepared or expecting to learn. In addition, a trainer has more knowledge than the audience on the given topic. For example, someone who teaches an advanced Excel class should have more skill than those who come to class to learn.

QCTO What is the Quality Council for Trades and Occupations?

The Quality Council for trades and occupations (QCTO) was established in 2010 in terms of section 26g of the Skills Development Act of 1998 as a juristic person. it was listed as a public entity in government gazette No 33900 of 31 December 2010 effective from 1 April 2010 to establish the Sub-Framework for trades and occupations. the QCTO is responsible for the development, maintenance and quality assurance of qualifications within its sub-framework.

The Quality Council for trades and occupations (QCTO) manages the occupational Qualifications Sub-framework (OQSF). the purpose of the QCTO is to ensure quality in the development, provision and certification of occupational qualifications.

The QCTO was established to perform certain functions which include but are not limited to the following:

  • Design and develop occupational standards and qualifications and submit them to the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) for registration on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF);
  • Ensure the quality of occupational standards and qualifications and learning in and for the workplace.

Purpose of the QCTO

In addressing a number of NQF implementation problems, the QCTO provides an opportunity  to find viable and  powerful solutions, some of which are  outlined below:

A quality  council that provides a framework  for various role-players

The many  role-players and  structures active  in the labour  market, such  as SETAs,  SGBs,  providers, assessors and  professional bodies, have  created a situation  that is overcomplex and  inefficient. The QCTO provides a coordinating framework  to support these role-players so that they can  focus  on what they do best  and  give coherence to these activities  as a whole.

An improved qualification model that suits occupational learning

Workers  need to be competent in three  areas of learning  in order  to be able  to practise a particular  occupation effectively, namely  with regard to the –

  • knowledge and  theory  component
  • practical  skills component
  • work experience component.

The new model  values each of these components equally.  It differs from the previous qualification model  in that it includes a structured work experience component.

A qualifications design process that is responsive to labour market skills needs

As a starting  point, the new model  analyses the relevant occupations as listed in the Organising Framework for Occupations (OFO), and  identifies  skills and  tasks associated with each occupation and  the kind and  scope of work experience required to develop competence. This process results in occupational curricula and  occupational qualifications that are  directly linked to labour-market skills needs.

Curricula for guiding the creation of occupational learning programmes

Each  occupational qualification will be derived  from an occupational curriculum. The purpose of the curriculum  is to simplify and  strengthen the development and assessment of the qualification.  It specifies the inputs  needed by unpacking the occupational profile, and  will be used as the basis for the accreditation of providers and  the approval of workplaces to offer the work experience component. It will ensure that overlaps across qualifications are  recognised, and this will assist learning  programme design, materials development and  learner mobility.

Reconceptualised unit standards that reflect  the three  forms of learning

The outcomes are  specified in unit standards reflecting each of the curriculum components already mentioned, namely  knowledge standards, practical standards and  work experience standards. Many of the more  generic knowledge and  practical  standards will appear in a number of different qualifications. A minimum credit value  will be set  for unit standards to ensure meaningful units of learning.

Qualification assessment specifications for standardising assessments

The QCTO will introduce an external, nationally  standardised assessment for each of its occupational qualifications  as a prerequisite for certification. A qualification assessment specifications document for each qualification will specify  the overall assessment strategy for the external assessment  of occupational competence. It will also  specify  the criteria for the registration of constituent assessors and  moderators, and  the requirements for accreditation of assessment centres or registration of assessment sites  where  appropriate. This will put an end  to the current  variations in the interpretation of standards across sectors and  sites.

The QCTO will appoint,  or recognise, suitable organisations as quality partners in the design and  management of these external assessments.

Revised rules  of combination that reflect  the differing requirements of different  occupations

Learners will have  to demonstrate sufficient foundational competence in communication and  mathematical literacy to cope  with the occupational learning demands and  to benefit  from the learning  process. Additional language, mathematics or knowledge and  theory  requirements in other  subject areas will be determined by the needs of each specific  occupation and  will be fit-for-purpose. These will be incorporated into the common/core learning requirements of the qualification.

The blanket,  ‘fundamental’ requirements that existed before  were time-consuming and  often resulted in the accumulation of credits  that were  not relevant to the particular  occupation. The new model  thus  removes a previous barrier  and  relates the educational requirements to the particular  job. ‘Electives’ will be replaced by specialisations.

Multiple ETQAs combined in order to streamline quality-assurance processes

The establishment of the QCTO will significantly increase the efficiency of the current  ETQA system, merging  twenty-three SETA ETQAs into one.  This means that quality-assurance activities  can  be better  coordinated and  managed. All occupational unit standards will be quality assured by the QCTO.

A ‘light-touch’ accreditation process that promotes self-improvement

Previously, there  was  an overemphasis on accreditation as the key to quality assurance. The QCTO will simplify the accreditation process, applying  criteria which are  stated in each curriculum  and  are  fit-for-purpose  for each qualification. The process will begin  with self-evaluation and  will promote quality improvement. Overlapping accreditation, registration and  verification requirements – currently  causing major delays and  frustrations, and  escalating costs (especially for small providers) – will no longer  apply.

A balance between flexibility  and standardisation in order to achieve credible qualifications

The new model  is flexible enough to maximise ‘fitness for purpose’, but includes sufficient standardisation to ensure the credibility of the system.

PETA SA Our Strategic objectives

The PETA-SAs sole objective is to improve teaching, training and learning, through supporting individual practitioners in memberships through a professional body to the best of their ability across the full diversity of the sector. We do this by delivering our three strategic priorities:

  • by giving benefits and especially professional development to practitioners;
  • by according status in recognition of expertise;
  • and by giving a voice so that learning and teaching professional can inform policy.

Despite recent progress, teachers and trainers in further education and skills remain under recognised in the public domain and policy making circles, and in comparison with both other professional.

Membership of the PETA-SA is part of individuals investing time and commitment to their own professionalism. The association, as is typical of professional bodies, also seeks to draw in new resources and financial investment that otherwise would not be available to professionals or the sector. In this way, we support the drive for excellence in teaching and training beyond what the state and employers can support.

Leaders and managers across the further education and skills sector benefit from encouraging and supporting teaching and training practitioners on their professional journey through membership. Utilising professional body membership and the services for individuals also benefits colleges and providers, as we have described in this document, dual professionals are able to provide a holistic and powerful learning experience through course content that is contextualised for up-to-date industry practices, developments and leading edge teaching, learning and assessment methods. PETA-SA seeks to ensure that quality of teaching and learning is at its highest possible and promotes a constructive dialogue between industry and providers and teaching and learning professionals.

What is the QCTO

What is the QCTO

The QCTO will manage and  coordinate the qualifications in the occupational qualifications  framework  in terms  of their development, provision,  assessment and  impact.  Its scope will be the development and  quality assurance of fit-for-purpose  occupational qualifications and  unit standards as required by the labour  market  for work and  employment purposes.

The QCTO will develop fit-for-purpose  occupational qualifications that will be certificated as National  Occupational Awards  or National  Skills Certificates. The awards will name the relevant occupation that the learner is now competent to practice. The focus  of occupational qualifications will be the development of occupational competence which, in turn, contributes to increased employment rates and  productivity.

The envisaged structure and  functions  of the QCTO reflect a new approach to quality assurance, in which quality assurance permeates all activities  and  is not seen as a separate function. This model  was  developed in response to appeals to bring qualifications development and  quality assurance ‘under one  roof’.

The quality assurance of the learning  process for the QCTO’s qualifications can be visualised as a structure in which the roof is supported by two pillars: design and  development on the one  side,  and  the assessment of occupational competence on the other.  The system is quality managed from the overarching ‘roof’, representing monitoring  and  evaluation through  data  analysis and research. This entire  structure illustrates the quality-assurance model.

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